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Full text of "Fish and Wildlife Management Report September 1, 1959"

No. 48 September, 1959 




ONTARIO 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 

REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Division of Fish and Wildlife 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTER-DEPARTMENTAL INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



Hon. J. W. Spooner F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 48 September, 1959 



Page 

Control of Nuisance Beaver by Means of an Electric Fence. 

- by K.J. Tolmie 1 

Report on Meeting to Discuss the Deer Habitat Management 

Project in South Canonto Township, Tweed District Office, 

August 28, 1958. 3 

Progress Report on the Management of Cedar Swamps in South 

Canonto Township, May 29, 1959. - by J.W. Keenan 6 

Moose Tagging Program, Sioux Lookout District, 1959. 

- by D.W. Simkin and E.H. Stone 14 

Methods and Costs of Collecting Moose Returns, Fort 

Arthur District, 1958 Season. - by D.D'Agostini 17 

Marking Wing Struts on Beaver and Otter Aircraft for 

Surveys. - by Tom Cook 20 

Pelee Island Pheasant Shoot - 1958, Statistics and 

Comments. - by L.J. Stock 24 

Mid-winter Waterfowl Inventory, Ontario, 1959.- by O.F. Boyer 26 

Northern Distribution of Woodcock in Ontario.- by G.F. Boyer 28 

Some Observations of the Behaviour of a Pack of Wolves in 

Winter. - by Bruce Turner 32 

Wolf Poisoning Experiment, Kenora District, 1959. 

- by M. Linklater 34 



Cont. TABLE OF CONTENTS. 2 No. l*S, September, 1959 



Page 

Wolf Project for Sioux Lookout District, 1959. 

- by J.B. Sayers 40 

Wolf Poisoning Project, Port Arthur District, 

East Side, 1959. - by E.J. Swift 47 

Wolf Poisoning Project, Port Arthur District, 

West Side, 1959. - by W.J. McKeown 51 

Occurrence of the Black Crappie, Pomoxis nigromaculatus 

in the Ontario Waters of Lake Superior. - by R.A. Ryder 53 

The Effect of Distributing Eyed Whitefish ( Coregonus 

clupeaformis Mitchill), and Yellow Pickerel ( Stizostedion 

vitreum , Mitchill), Eggs on the Commercial Fisheries of 

Rainy Lake, Ontario. - by C.A. Elsey 54 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA- DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/resourcemansep1959onta 



- 1 - 



CONTROL OF NUISANCE BEAVER BY MANS OF AN ELECTRIC FENCE 



by 
K. J. Tolmie 



At the present time we are carrying out a project in the 
Port Arthur District for the control of nuisance beaver by means of 
an electric fence unit where dams threaten to wash out roads and 
railways. 

The writer has used this method in Durham County in 1955 
with success at two sites. However, the project was carried out under 
ideal conditions and could not, under those circumstances, be con- 
sidered a successful control measure. 

The Oliver Township Council in the Port Arthur District 
requested help with their nuisance beaver and at their council 
meeting the writer suggested control by means of the electric fence 
which the council approved and purchased one unit for trial. 

This unit was set up by the writer on June 8, 1959* on 
Lot k t Concession 2, Oliver Township, ^nd to date has been successful 
in stopping the reconstruction of the dam and blocking of the culvert. 
However, it is yet in early stages and complications may still set in. 

Officials from the C. P. Railway and Marks and Lybster 
Townships have visited this site and from their investigations have 
decided to purchase a unit for their own areas. 

We realize this method will have to be set up a number of 
times during the year; however, this factor will be determined on 
completion of this project which will take at least one year. 

The following shows the equipment and methods used: 

Equipment 

1 Shur Shot 6 volt electric fence unit, 

1-6 volt dry cell battery, 

Insulators, number determined by distance, 

#9 soft wire, 

1 ground post, 

Stakes (these o-in be cut around the area of fence). 



- 2 - 



Methods 

1. Take out centre portion of dam until the water reaches its 
natural level. 

2. Drive post, set unit off ground on post. 

3. Drive stake into ground - attached to stake is the ground 
wire. 

4. Drive stakes and attach wire, keeping wire approximately 
1^" off water. String wire the distance required, making 
sure there is no obstruction to short the wire. 

5. Attach positive wire to line; set unit at "high." 

6. To test to see if unit is working, use a blade of grass. 

The first week, the unit should be left on 'high* for the 
whole week. The second week, the unit is left on 9 high ? every other 
day. The third week, the unit is left on 'high 9 one day in the middle 
of the week. Following this procedure, the unit is removed, leaving 
the wire. 



- 3 - 

REPORT OF MEETING TO DISCUSS THE DEER HABITAT 
MANAGEMENT PROJECT IN SOUTH CANONTO TOWNSHIP 
TWEED DISTRICT OFFICE - Aug , 28, 1958 

Project Regeneration - TW-169-58 

Per 

Personnel - The following personnel were in attendance: 

R.C, Passraore - District Forester, Tweed 

D,H, Burton - Division of Research, Maple 

ReLo Hepburn - Division of Research, Maple 

A,T. Cringan - Division of Fish & Wildlife, Toronto 

G„ Sinclair - Division of Research, South-Eastern Region 

J.K, McEwen - Division of Research, South-Eastern Region 

J.W. Keenan - Division of Timber, Tweed 

The meeting was called to discuss the progress of the Deer 
Habitat Management Project with particular reference to the work 
carried out during the summer and winter of 1957-58, and the proposed 
program for the year 1958-59, with specific reference to the roles to 
be undertaken by the various people involved in the project. 

Because some of those present had not previously been 
closely associated with this project, Alec Cringan briefly discussed 
the program from its inception,, He explained that this area had at 
one time been very productive for deer but the population had 
declined seriously in recent years It is believed that, contrary to 
local opinion, hunting pressure is not the reason for this because a 
deer population can normally survive an annual kill of one third of 
its numbers. The wildlife biologists feel that the deterioration of 
the deer habitat is responsible for the population decline. One 
important facet of this deterioration is tho overmaturity of most 
cedar swamps in the area, the resultant low volume and low nutritive 
value of available browse. Therefore, the experimental work in cedar 
swamp management was conceived to attempt to remedy this situation. 
Because of the excellent sprnce growing in these swamps with the 
cedar, the management of the spruce becomes an important part of the 
overall plan. At the present time, the positive response of the deer 
is considered only a by-product of this swamp management. 

He summarized the objectives of this work as follows: - 
"The Deer Habitat Management Project is experimental rather than 
operational in nature. Its objectives are to develop silvicultural 
techniques, for the management of forest lands, that will result in 
improved habitat conditions for white-tailed deer and, at the same 
time, continue the production of commercially valuable forest 
products," 

The 1957-58 work in the Whitesucker Creek was discussed and 
agreement was general that the commercial operation carried out was 
excellent, particularly when the prevailing market conditions are 



- 4 - 

taken into account. The unfinished blocks - C & E - will be 
completed during the present year. Keenan reported that arrangements 
have been made to complete the treatments under Cringan 1 s plan. This 
will consist of the removal by cutting or by frill - girdling and 
poisoning of all the marked stems not utilized during the operation. 
Funds in the amount of $1000. have been made available through 
Project Regeneration to carry out this work and also to complete the 
layout of the operations for this year. 

Cringan expressed the feeling that too many cutting systems 
were tried out on too small an area. This met with general agreement. 
It was, therefore, decided that the number cf treatments would be 
reduced and the treatment areas enlarged. 

Because advance growth seems to release excellently in 
small stand openings, a basic system of group shelterwood cutting was 
supported. This system will be compared with a straight commercial 
clearcut. 

Cringan observed that following the cut the deer food had 
greatly improved through the development of root suckers in ash, the 
release of cedar, and the development of maple. 

Because Cringan would not be able to actively participate 
in further work on the area and in order to establish a definite 
alignment for future work on the area, it was felt necessary to 
define the part to be played by the various groups co-operating in 
this study. 

A general discussion of the work requirements ensued and 
the following breakdown of the workload resulted: 

Wildlife Research 

1. Determine the comparative distribution of deer both inside 
and outside the cut areas. Past studies conducted throughout 
the general area will serve as a basis for assessing the results 
obtained from this project. 

2. Study the relationship between the number of deer and the 
abundance of browse - the food rupply balance - both inside and 
outside the swamp areas. This will involve a browse study as 
well as a study of the nutrition levels of the browse. 

Forest Research 

1« Carry out regeneration surveys to determine the amount of 
advance growth present before cutting and to assess the results 
of the cutting methods in terms of regeneration and release of 
advance growth. This study will be conducted only on the swamp 
areas, with the exception that if the project succeeds in 
increasing the local population of deer, there may be some 
detrimental effects on certain valuable tree species, such as 



- 5 - 

white pine, in the areas adjacent to the swamps. If such were 
the case the study would be expanded to include the swamp 
margins. 

Included in this survey will be a study of swamp sites to 
establish the pore pattern and moisture regimes. 

2. Plan silvicultural cutting systems and carry out tree mark- 
ing in swamp areas to prepare the areas for cutting operations* 
Assistance will be given by Wildlife Research and the Tweed 
District Timber staff in devising the cutting systems. 

Tweed District Timber Staff 

1. Arrange for and supervise commercial operations to be 
carried out in the swamp areas. This may involve assistance to 
the operator in locating a market for certain products such as 
cedar posts. 

2. Carry out studies to determine gross and net volume scales, 
ages and growth data to assist in establishing the character of 
the present timber stand on the area. This will provide a basis 
for historical comparison. 

3. Broadly compare the relative degree of utilization obtained 
under the various cutting systems. 

4. Analyse the revenues obtained from the operations. 

In order to ensure that adequate records are kept of the 
deer habitat work in South Canonto it was felt advisable to keep all 
records in one place. It was further decided that the Tweed District 
Office would be the most suitable place to have these records. 

The requirements for the current year v s operations were 
discussed. Keenan felt that access roads would have to be developed 
into the swamps proposed for cutting and this would require additional 
funds. Cringan agreed to discuss this problem with Dr. Harkness, In 
order that cutting could commence as early as possible, it was agreed 
that the marking be completed by the end of September. 

In conclusion, it was decided that a visit to the area by 
all interested parties would be arranged as quickly as possible, the 
time to be arranged by Don Burton. At that time, the immediate 
requirements could be discussed on the ground. 



- 6 - 



PROGRESS REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF CEDAR SWAMPS 
IN SOUTH CANONTO TOWNSHIP, MAY 29, 1959 

by 
J.W. Keenan 



General 

This report summarizes the progress to date (June, 1959) of 
the management program in the cedar swamps of South Canonto Township. 
Only brief reference is made to the wildlife research aspect of the 
program since this will undoubtedly be reported in due course by the 
persons directly engaged in the work. 

The cedar swamps in South Canonto Township are ideally 
suited to an integrated management program, for two main reasons. 

l a The maturity of certain of the timber, mainly white spruce and a 
resultant infestation of the eastern spruce bark beetle, 
Dendroctonus piceaperda , makes it desirable to harvest at least 
the mature portions of the stands as a salvage and control 
measure. 

2. The swamps form a part of a much larger deer habitat study area 
where research activities are being carried out by R.L. Hepburn 
of the Division of Research. Through managed utilization of the 
timber in the swamps it is hoped to alter and improve habitat 
for the deer. 

In 1955* R.L. Hepburn undertook to establish several one 

tenth acre plots in the Whitesucker Creek swamp which were cut to 

varying densities in an effort to determine the best method of secur- 
ing cedar regeneration. 

The main effort was started in the summer of 1957 when 
A.T. Cringan, biologist with the Division of Fish and Wildlife made 
an intensive cruise of a number of swamps in the area as a result of 
which he produced a management plan for the Whitesucker Swamp and a 
further set of data concerning the other swamps which are to be 
logged during the period 1957-1963. 

Management Objectives 

These objectives as set down by Mr. Cringan in his White- 
sucker Plan may be considered applicable to all of the swamps in the 
areas 

1, Improvement of food and shelter facilities for white-tailed deer, 

2. Continued production of certain commercially valuable forest 
products. 



3. Immediate salvage of overmature spruce and elm, and of spruce 
subject to windfall and attack by insects,, 

4. Provision of experimental facilities for testing various silvi- 
cultural techniques o 

Silvicultural Techniques 

The management plan for the V/hitesucker Swamp prescribed a 
variety of logging techniques controlled by tree marking and compart- 
ment outline. The treatments were as follows? 

1. Clear-cut of hardwoods. 

2. Commercial clearcut - entire compartment. 

3. Commercial clear-cut - in NW-SE and NE-SW chain-wide strips plus 
removal of spruce in 1 chain strip intervals. 

4. Commercial clear-cut in patches. 

5. Commercial operation at discretion of operator. 

6. Commercial clear-cut in N-S, E-W chain wide strips plus spruce 
between strips. 

7. Commercial removal of spruce. 

Following the 1957-5$ logging operation, the decision of a 
meeting of the South Canonto Project Committee was that too many 
cutting systems were tried out on too small an area. As a result it 
was decided that the number of future treatments would be reduced and 
the treatment areas enlarged. 

Logging Operations 

A - 1957-58 Season 

Between January 6th and March 1st, 195$ a logging operation 
was conducted on the 41 acre Whitesucker Swamp as planned in the 
management plan. The operation was carried out by a jobber of Gillies 
Bros. Lumber Company, who 9 s limit #D-1490 contains the study area. 
Unfavourable weather conditions forced the postponement of further 
operations with approximately 10 acres of swamp remaining uncut, the 
area consisting of Blocks C and E as outlined on the accompanying map 
of the swamp. 



- 8 - 

The products removed from the area were as follows I 



Species 




Pieces 






FBM 


Yellow Birch 




1 






65 


White Spruce 




1,208 






56,237 


White Cedar 




368 






12,328 


Balsam 




322 






5,449 


Black Ash 




95 






5,170 


Elm 




157 






16,041 


White Birch 




4 






202 


Poplar 




21 






1,124 


TOTAL 




2,176 






97,166 


Cedar Posts 


7' 


100 


pieces 




- 


8' 


702 


pieces 




Cedar Braces 


12' 


- 


90 


pieces 




Balsam Pulpwood 




- 175 


cords 





The revenue derived from stumpage charges amounts to 
$793.81. 

B - 1958-59 Season 

For the 1958-59 season, no timber was marked. The operator 
was allowed to carry out a clear-cut of all merchantable material. 
This was felt desirable for two reasonss- 

1. It would obviate the necessity of marking. 

2. It was believed to be as likely as any system to achieve success 
in producing a new crop of cedar and spruce. 

Two operations were carried out between the period from mid 
November to mid February, the first to clean up the Whitesucker Swamp 
(#65) and the second to log a portion of a new area - Swamp #'s 127 
and 126, known locally as the Wolf Swamp. The swamps planned for 
cutting during the year were 129, 137 and 139 but 129 will be operated 
next year in the course of a presently planned operation and the other 
two were too distant to warrant the cost of road construction. They 
will be left until hardwood operations are underway in the vicinity. 

The volumes cut were as follows 2 



Pieces FBM 

4 65 

980 37,740 

46 988 

3 179 

641 12,846 

1 V± 

TOTAL 1,675 51,852 



Whit 


esucker 


Swamp 




Species 






White P 


ine 




Spruce 






Balsam 






Poplar 






Cedar 






Elm 





- 9 - 

The stumpage revenue from this operation is ^3 53 » 52. Thus 
the total volume of material cut from the Whitesucker Swamp (#65) was 
149,018 FBM for a total revenue to the Crown of $1, 147.33c 

2. Wolf Swamp (No*s. 127, 126 . 

Species No- Pieces FBM 

W. Pine 5 243 

W. Spruce 1,554 77,544 

Balsam 932 IB, 595 

Hemlock 177 11,554 

Cedar 1,423 36,136 

Maple 2 23 5 

Y. Birch 21 1,577 

Elm 4 237 

Ash 12 713 

Poplar 106 5,985 

TOTAL 4,236 152,819 

The stumpage revenue amounted to $93 5 » 68. 

Clean-up Operations 

Because of a slump in the log market and a somewhat 
optimistic marking of merchantable trees, considerable marked material 
remained uncut in the Whitesucker Swamp following the 1957-58 
operation. In order to preserve the prescribed treatment variations 
it was necessary to remove this uncut material. A budget of ^1,000. 
was allotted under Project Regeneration (TW-169-58) and the following 
operations were carried outs 

1. Remnant marked hardwoods were frill girdled and poisoned with a 
solution of l+p (by volume) 245-T (Esteron) in stove oil. 

2. A small amount of layer cutting was tried (bending over of small 
cedar leaving strip of unbroken cambium) - to induce layering. 

3. Marked unmerchantable conifers were cut with a power saw. 

None of this work was carried out on the uncut blocks "C i} 
and i? E" to which previous reference has been made. 

The cost of this work was $274»56, considerably less than 
the anticipated cost. However, it had been considered that the 
marking for the 1958-59 would also be carried out under this project 
so that our decision not to mark reduced the work program considerably. 

Concurrent with and following the 1958-59 logging operations 
a clean-up project was initiated under Special Stand Improvement 
funds. The object was to log cedar posts left behind by the operator, 
the posts being manufactured for use in the district Parks. A total 
of 3458 posts were cut of which approximately 2958 were forwarded out 



- 10 - 

to Plovna Tor pick-up by Parks personnel. The balance are still to 
be hauled. The cost of the project was $3*370.96, The fairly high 
cost is because of the deep snow conditions prevalent at the time the 
work was carried out. 

General Comment 

Following the first year's operations, it was agreed by all 
concerned that there was no benefit to be derived from requiring the 
operator to cut only during the winter period. There was little 
response on the part of the deer to the food made available, and the 
operator was unduly handicapped due to snow conditions. Therefore, 
in the second year, operations were allowed to commence as soon as 
the swamps could be worked in the fall. There was an increased 
response to the available browse during the past year's operations, 
although it is still evident that the benefits to be derived are long 
range rather than immediate. 

Another point which should be noted is that, in general, 
our problem would appear to be to release advance growth of spruce 
and cedar rather than to secure regeneration. Therefore, our cutting 
system must be designed with this in mind. 









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Map showing divisions of Whitesucker 
Creek Swamp for marking and cutting 
purposes. 



numbered picket along haul road, 

boundaries are "blazed" with red 
paint. 



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- 13 - 

t 

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To Barrett Chute 



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- LEGENDS 

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/ V ill'/ Location, approximate size and 
\J ' 73 shape of swamps cruised; 

Numbers refer to type area nos, 
on FRI Map Sheet No. 451764. 

Figure 2 °. 

Portion of South Canonto Township, Frontenac Co. 

Showing 
Location of Coniferous and Mixedwood Swamps 
Cruised in 1957 



Scale 2 







1 
i 



Miles 



- H - 

MOOSE TAGGING PROGRAM, SIOUX LOOKOUT DISTRICT, 1959 

by 
D.W. Simkin and E.H. Stone 

In the fall of 195B, we discovered that swimming moose 
could be approached by helicopter closely enough to put metal tags in 
their ears. Unfortunately, we did not have all of the equipment 
necessary to do the tagging last fall when the helicopter was avail- 
able. We decided, however, that during the following summer we would 
make an all-out attempt to tag a number of moose. 

As a result, we tagged 21 moose this summer. Since the 
technique has not been apparently used before we believe it is worth- 
while here reporting. 

Areas which were known to be good moose range with an abun- 
dance of aquatic habitat and adjacent to hunter access routes were 
flown over in the helicopter at an altitude of 1000-1500 feet. By 
maintaining the relatively high altitude the observer could scan much 
more area while searching for animals. 

As soon as a moose was spotted in the water the pilot 
descended the aircraft as rapidly as possible in the direction of the 
moose. The reason for this obviously was to trap the moose in deep 
water as rapidly as possible. 

It was at this stage that the skill of our pilot, Mr. Kent, 
made the tagging procedure possible for he invariably succeeded in 
straddling the swimming moose with the two large rubber floats of the 
helicopter and steering it out into deep water (where it was much 
easier to work with). 

Once the moose was between the floats and the aircraft was 
moving along in the water, the observer-tagger clamped a tag in the 
pliers which he attached to his wrist by a string and got onto the 
pontoon. There he lay down flat projecting himself as far forward as 
possible. The reason for this was that it enabled the pilot to 
better observe the proceedings (a very important consideration, 
especially when operating in a shallow lake where the animal might 
possibly touch bottom at any time) . 



Tag should be secured 
as tight as possible 
with point "A" close 
to the edge of the 
ear. 




Type of tag 
used. 




- 15 - 

As soon as the aircraft was manouvered into a position 
where the proximal ear of the moose could be grabbed the tagger 
grabbed it with his left hand and immediately with his right hand, in 
which the pliers and tag were firmly held, fastened the tag in the 
ear making sure that as long a hold as possible (see diagram) is 
grasped by the tag. 

Thus the tagging operation is complete. The tagger then 
climbed back into the helicopter and recorded on a map the sex and 
age of the animal tagged at the location of tagging. 

Discussion 

No large bulls were tagged as we believed there would be 
some danger of such an animal hitting the comparatively delicate and 
very expensive bubble of the aircraft and breaking it. Wherever 
possible calves and yearlings were selected. If adult cows were also 
present they were taken after tagging the younger known age moose. 

The reason for selecting calves and yearlings was because 
these were animals of known age. If they happen to be shot by 
hunters in subsequent hunting seasons these known age jaws will be 
very valuable for evaluating our present wear-class system of aging 
moose. 

Adults of unknown age were also tagged when deemed safe by 
Mr. Kent. The reason for this was that we believed these animals 
when shot and the location where they were killed is plotted will 
provide us with much needed information on moose movements. 

Effort and Results 

6 moose - 2 calves, 3 yearlings and one adult were tagged 
while carrying out an aerial waterfowl survey. 

3 moose - 1 adult and 2 calves were tagged while flying to 
and from a caribou study area. 

12 moose - 5 yearlings and 7 adults were tagged during 
6 hours and 5 minutes of flying while specifically looking for moose 
to tag. 

Thus 21 moose were tagged from the helicopter during 
6 hours and 5 minutes of specific searching, 9 being tagged incidental 
to other Fish and Wildlife work projects. 

Cost 

The helicopter costs $50.00 per hour. Thus total cost of 
tagging 21 moose (charging one hour for the 9 moose tagged while 
doing other projects and 6 hours and 5 minutes for the specific 
search) would be $3 50.00 or approximately |l6.60 per tagged moose. 
A truer estimate of cost when contemplating a more intensive moose 



- 16 - 

tagging project can be derived by determining the cost per tagged 
moose when specifically looking for moose. Twelve moose were tagged 
in slightly over 6 hours. Thus the cost could be estimated at 
slightly over $25.00 per moose. This I believe is very reasonable 
when compared costs and effort which would be required to get moose 
by building corral traps and tagging there. 

Future Plans 

As a result we intend to use the helicopter again this fall 
(incidental to enforcement patrolling) and next July in an all out 
effort to tag as many moose as possible. 

We believe it would be very desirable to tag as many moose 
as possible. Our objective at the present time is 100 tagged moose. 
This size of a sample, in hunted areas, should provide us with much 
useful information on aging moose and on moose movements throughout 
the year when these animals are harvested in the years to come. 

Time to Fly 

It is a well-known fact that moose feed more extensively at 
dawn and dusk. With this in mind we flew on July 12 for 2 hours just 
after sun-up and about 2 hours before sundown. Also 2 hours were 
flown between 10 a.m. and 12:01 p.m. The results tended to verify 
the above mentioned fact for 2 moose were tagged during the early 
morning flight; one during mid morning and £ during the evening. One 
more was tagged early on the morning of July 13. 

S ummary 

1. 21 swimming moose - 4 calves, £ yearlings and 9 adults were tagged 
with metal tags from a helicopter. 

2. The tagging procedure is described. 

3. Large bulls were avoided due to the risk of damage to the bubble 
of the aircraft. 

4. The cost of tagging moose varied between $16. 60 and $25.00 per 
animal. 

5. A quota of 100 tagged animals has been set. 

6. The 2 or 3 hour period just prior to darkness in the evening 
appeared to be the best time to look for moose on the water. 

7. Moose were tagged only in areas accessible to hunters. 

B. Information from tagged animals shot by hunters or recovered by 
other means will be useful in evaluating the accuracy of our 
moose aging techniques and also in determing movement of these 
animals. 



- 17 - 

METHODS AND COSTS OF COLLECTING MOOSE RETURNS 
PORT ARTHUR DISTRICT 
1953 SEASON 

by 
D. D'Agostini 



Methods 

1. A letter was mailed to all outside issuers early in December 
asking that lists of licences sold, not already submitted, be 
turned in to the District Office in Port Arthur by December 29? 
195^. 

2. Each hunter, on purchasing his licence at the District Office, 
was given a copy of the attached letter and encouraged verbally 
to send in his moose return whether he was successful or not, 
and if he was successful in bagging a moose, to bring in the 
lower jaw. The value of the information gathered from these two 
items was explained. As many outside issuers as possible were 
contacted and given letters and asked to carry out the same 
procedure. 

3. Two thousand notice cards were mailed to delinquent hunters on 
January 5? 1959? one hundred and sixty- five on January 14? and 
one hundred and seventy-four on January 27? 1959. The address 
was typed on rolled gum labels by the Fish and Wildlife Clerk and 
the cards stamped and address labels attached by the staff at the 
Port Arthur Hatchery. 

4. At every meeting attended by the Fish and Wildlife staff during 
and after the hunt, the value of turning the moose return forms 
and lower jaws in was stressed to the gathering. The press in 
both Fort William and Port Arthur carried the same information 

as news items, and the Thunder Bay Fish and Game association made 
several announcements on their bi-weekly T.V. programme. 

5. Cards were left at the Pigeon River Customs Office on which the 
Customs Officers recorded the information received from Non- 
Residents. 

6. As each card was received at the District Office, it was checked 
against a list previously prepared, which consisted of the 
numbers of all Resident and Non-Resident Moose Licences sold in 
the District. The numbers of all licences on the list corres- 
ponding to the numbers on the cards were cancelled. This 
prevented duplication of returns. 



- id - 

Cost of the Project 

Resident Returns 

Stamps $5 13$. 44 

Man Days - 26 @ $15 .00 390.00 

Miscellaneous 2 5.00 

TOTAL $ 553.44 

Cost Per Return 20„7£ 

Non-Resident Returns 

Collection of cards from the Customs Officers was carried 
out during regular patrols. 

Result 

No effort was made to separate the cards estimated as 
turned in voluntarily and those received as a result of the notices. 

The effort at the Customs resulted in 110 cards being 
turned in. We believe it represents 100% of the kill, plus some 
extras. 

Recommendations 

1. That the information on the notice card be rearranged so that it 
can be torn in half before returning. 

2. That we sell the licences through the Department outlets only 
as previously recommended, or (a) that the numbers on the 
licences sent to issuers in the District run consecutively and a 
complete list of issuers with the licence numbers they received 
be forwarded to the District Office as soon as licences are 
mailed to the issuers or (b) that all licences to be sold in each 
District be forwarded to the Districts concerned along with a list 
of issuers and numbers of licences sold last year. These to be 

in the hands of the District by the first week in August so that 
our officers may deliver the licences in person during their 
regular patrols. This will enable the officers to express verbally 
to the issuer the importance of mailing in on time an accurate 
legible list of his sales. The time, accuracy, and legibility is 
very important. One list of sales was received on April 15, and 
another on May 14. On the issuer's returns, it is also important 
that lists of sales to residents and to non-residents be kept on 
separate sheets. 



- 19 - 

Conclusion 

The sale of the licences last year was very trying to our 
staff as we were continually called by the issuers regarding licences. 

A complete new system of checking and recording returns 
had to be implemented because of the outside issuer, and this was 
very time consuming. 

This is not intended in any way to reflect on any person 
or persons as their problem last season is realized. 



- 20 - 

MARKING WING STRUTS ON BEAVER AND OTTER AIRCRAFT FOR SURVEYS 

by 
Tom Cook 

Purpose s To make aerial surveys of predetermined areas, the width of 
the strips viewed on each side of the aircraft being 
variable from one to five times the altitude above the 
ground 

Any type of survey may be planned and carried out in either 
a Beaver or Otter aircraft providing the area to be viewed 
on each side of the aircraft is within the multiple of one 
to five times the altitude. 

P lanning Surveys ; 

1. Decide on the desired altitude and width of strips on 
each side of aircraft. 

2. Determine position number on strut at which ribbons 
will be attached. (Divide altitude into width of strip on 
each side.) 

Strut positions are marked and numbered 0,1,2,3*4? & 5» 

"0" Position provides the bottom line of sight and coin- 
cides with the float. 

Any one of the other numbers provides the top line of sight 
and the area viewed on each side of the aircraft between 
these lines is the altitude times the number of the top 
line of sight. For example, at an altitude of 500 feet 
above the ground, strips 500 feet wide will be viewed with 
the ribbon attached at No. 1 Position, 2500 feet will be 
viewed on each side with the ribbon attached at No. 5 
Position. 

Tape, placed across the window in use, provides the rear 
sight. 

3. Establish a height above sea-level at which the survey 
is to be flown (find height of area to be surveyed above 
sea-level, to an average of this height add the desired 
altitude of the aircraft.) 

Flying Survey s 

The track to be flown, the position of the ribbons on the 
struts and the flight altitude above sea-level should be 
marked on the maps to be used. This information must be 
available each time the survey is carried out, the inform- 
ation gathered is then comparative regardless of change 
in aircraft or personnel making the survey. 



- 21 



(in hilly country or over large areas, it may by necessary 
to use different flight altitudes for particular parts of 
the survey. These changes must be noted and used consist- 
antly on future flights.) 

The observers must align the bottom of the tape on the 
window with the ribbon on the strut, the area seen 
between this line and the aircraft float is the area to 
be viewed. 

Aircraft should be flown at normal cruising speeds, the 
use of flaps creates a downwash deflecting the ribbons 
and causing an incorrect viewing angle. 

For winter surveys when the aircraft is on skis, the float 
position may be represented by additional streamers 
attached to the wing struts at position "0", this coin- 
cides with the float position and provides the bottom 
line of sight. 

Marking Aircraft Struts and Windows : 

DHC2 BEAVER - 

Place a piece of tape across the window in each cargo 
door, the bottom of the tape must be 2 inches from the 
top of the window, (if desired, the entire top 2 inches 
of the window may be blan.cd out.) 



Measure up from the fuselage end of the wing strut the 
following distances: 



Position 


Number 


Distance 


Angle 


from Horizontal 







18 3/8 inches 




62° 


00' 


1 




41 1/8 




33 


10 


2 




52 1/8 " 




21 


30 


3 




58 27/32 " 




15 


50 


4 




63 3/4 " 




12 


20 


5 




67 1/8 " 




10 


15 



Paint a thin line and number each of these positions. 
Attache a light string or ribbon four feet in length 
to the strut at the position required. 



22 - 



Marking Aircraft Struts and Windows : 
DHC3 OTTER 

Place a piece of tape across the cabin windows to be 
used (usually the third and fourth window from the front 
on both sides.) The bottom of the tape must be four 
inches from the top of the window, (if desired, the 
entire top 4 inches of the window may be blanked out.) 

Measure up from the fuselage end of the wing strut the 
following distances: 



Position 


Number 


Distance 


Angl 


e from Horizontal 







1/2 inches 




66° 


00' 


1 




38 13/16 " 




34 


40 


2 




50 1/8 




22 


20 


3 




57 7/16 " 




16 


10 


4 




62 1/4 




12 


40 


5 




65 7/8 " 




10 


25 



Paint a thin line and number each of these positions. 
Attach a light string or ribbon four feet in length 
to the strut at the position required. 






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- 24 - 

PELEE ISLAND PHEASANT SHOOT - 1958 
STATISTICS AND COMMENTS 

by 
L. J. Stock 



Season - October 29th and 30th 
Bag Limit - 9 cocks and 2 hens 
No. of Hunters - Non-res. - 1001 

Res. 190 

Total 1191 

No. of hunters who shot their limit 11 birds 

(n = 457) - 49% 

Total birds bagged Cocks Hens 

First day (n s 450) 
Second day (n s 401) 

Totals 

Birds Per Hunter 

Total Cocks & Hens 
Hours per hunter 
Birds per hunter hour 

Crippling Loss (totals based on approx. k0% sample). 

Cocks Hen 



7384 
1310 


(n = 449) 
(n = 453) 


1667 
596 




8694 




2263 


11,227 


7.3 

5.6 
1.65 




1.9 


9.2 



Total $ of Bag Total % of Bag 

Crippled - hit but not retrieved 2138 23.8 446 19.7 
Picked up - shot by another 

hunter 594 6.7 731 32.3 

Found dead but not picked up 263 2.9 1290 57.0 

Estimate of loss and illegal kill 1304 15 2263 100.0 

Legal bag 8694 2263 

Total kill 9998 4526 

Total Cocks and Hens = 14,524 



- 25 - 

Sex and Age Ratios at the Shoot (n » 1258) 

Adult d : Juvenile <J - 1 : 4.3 
Adult 9 : Juvenile 2 - 1 ; 1,65 
Adult 2 : Juvenile - 1 : 4.9 

Sex and Age Composition of the Bag (n s 328, first day) 

Adult c? - 19.3$ 
Adult 2 - 8.9 
Juvenile cf - 56.7 
Juvenile 2 - 14.6 
Total Juveniles - 71.5 

Sex Ratios of the Population 

Pre-season October 27-28 (n - 2196) 1 s 1.5 
Post season November 4 (n - 1917) 1 : 16.8 

Population Estimates Using the Kelker Index 

Number of Birds Before the Hunt Number of Birds After the Hunt 

Cocks 10704 706 

Hens 15977 11712 

Totals 26681 12418 



.. 26 -- 

MID -WINTER WATERFOWL INVENTORY 
ONTARIO 1959 

by 

G. P. Boyer 
Canadian Wildlife Service. 



The same areas were covered as in previous years. Ground 
counts were made by voluntary co-operators and aerial counts were 
carried out by an Ontario Dept. of Lands and Forests Beaver air- 
craft with personnel from Kemptville, Tweed and Lake Erie Districts 
taking part . 

Weather and Water Conditions - as reported: 

1. Kemptville District - St. Lawrence River completely frozen over 
from Quebec Border to Kingston except^ for large portions of open 
water at Ivy Lea Bridge and Prescott. Other than these, there were 
only a few small open "pot-holes". There was a decrease of 70.3 
per cent over the 1958 count of waterfowl . 

2. Tweed - The only open water was along the outside shore of 

Prince Edward Co. and Amherst Island., other than small open patches 

near the outlet of West Lake and the couth-west end of Wolfe Island 

There was an increase from 1,240 ducks c v *rved in 1958,, and 6,600 

in 1959. 

« 
3- Lake Erie District - Lake Erie entirely frozen over from the 

shore line to the horizon. Marshes and inland streams were com- 
pletely frozen over. Areas of open water included Lake Ontario, 
north part of the -Old Welland Canal, the Niagara River, Outer 
Long Point Bay, approximately 10 per cent of the Detroit River, 
pockets in Lake St. Clair and 5 per cent of the St. Clair River. 
There was an estimated 49 per cent decrease of all waterfowl. The 
only increase in major species was with Black Ducks and Mergansers. 
Others all showed a decrease. 



GROUND SERVE YS 

In general it appeared that the cold weather caused severe 
ice conditions which had the tendency to decrease the number of 
waterfowl wintering over the region as a whole. Local increases 
were noted at Brockville, Hamilton, Brantford (Grand River) 
Kitchener (Grand River) . However this increase appeared to be 
caused more by the birds congregating in the smaller water areas 
available for them in the region as a whole. 








- 27 - 


SPECIES 


1958 


Whistling Swan 


_ _ 


Canada Goose 


2,800 


Blue Goose 


20 


Mallard 


3,229 


Black Duck 


6,247 


Wood Duck 


50 


Redhead 


-- 


Ring necked Duck 


-- 


Canvasback 


27,703 


Scaup 


18,499 


American Goldeneye 


12,854 


Bufflehead 


617 


Old Squaw 


10,088 


Harlequin 


2 


King Eider 


2 


Scoter 


30 


Merganser 


232 


Unidentified 


7,788 


Totals 


90,lbl 



1959 

15 

2,000 

1,323 
11,242 

25 

713 
200 

4,513 
23,081 

8,159 

135 

3,102 

4 

50 
1,520 
8,798 

b4,bb'0 



X This figure was erroneously given as 90,131 in 1958 
report . 






- 2d - 



NORTHERN DISTRIBUTION OF WOODCOCK IN ONTARIO 



by 

G. F. Boyer 



This report is an attempt to classify the northern limits 
of distribution of the woodcock in Ontario. Thanks are expressed 
to Dr. A. E. Allin, Port Arthur, Messers. H. G. Lumsden and J. A. 
Macfie, Carman Douglas, Ted Hall, Ontario Department of Lands and 
Forests and Mr. James L. Baillie of the Royal Ontario Museum of 
Zoology for furnishing records. Reports from Mr. G. F. Coyne, 
District Forester, Swastika and Mr. Wm. Morris, biologist, Sudbury 
District were also used. 

Eastern Patricias 

There are sight records for Onakawana and Ft. Albany from 
the R.O.M.Z. local lists file. 

Swastika District (from report by Mr. G. F. Coyne) 

At least 20 birds sighted by Mr. Coyne in 1958. The most 
northern record was for Maisonville Township. 

Nesting 

A nest was found in June, 1958, by a tree planting crew in 
Armstrong Township. 

Fall - One bird shot on Sept. 19, 19 58 in Marter Twp. by 
G. F. Coyne. 
- Two birds shot on Sept. 19, 1958 in Hudson Twp. by 
G. F. Coyne. 

Remarks - Woodcock have been definitely identified in Swastika 
District since 1954 (Coyne). 

Gogama District (J. A. Macfie) 

One seen by J. A. Macfie on April 30, 1959 at Gogama. 
Other records are, April 21+, 1957 at Gogama and May 5, 1957 in 
Mattagami Twp. 

In September, 1957 a hunter shot a woodcock in Churchill 
Twp. near Gogama. 



- 29 - 



W hite River (Carman Douglas) 



"The mating display here (White River) is so prolonged 
that I can only assume that they nest here." No nests or young have 
been found and the birds are far from common in the fall and are 
seldom seen during the hunting season. Apparently the Woodcock is 
found in the spring wherever suitable habitat exists in the district 

Cochrane District (E. L. Hall) 

No woodcock have been reported in this district. 

Sudbury District (from report by Wm. Morris) 

Woodcock singing grounds were located by Morris in 1957 
in the following areas: Marshay, Aylmer, Bezzard, Neelon and 
Foster Townships. 

They are also numerous records and singing ground counts 
on Manitoulin Island by Lumsden, Hunn and Morris. 

Sault Ste. Marie 



1955. 



First found by Lumsden and Smith on St. Joseph v s Island in 

Singing ground census, 195 5 « 

Hilton Twp. - 3«9 miles - 12 birds (St. Joseph's Island). 

Goulais River - 4«9 miles 21 - 23 birds (west and north of 
Sault Ste. Marie) . 

H. G. Lumsden reported woodcock at Thessalon. 

There are nesting records for woodcock on Michipicoten 
Island, Lake Superior (R.O.M.Z.). 

Port Arthur District (Dr. A. E. Allin) 

First recorded in 1937 about 15 miles west of Port Arthur 
by Terry Shortt of the R.O.M.Z. 

Nest and eggs found eight miles west of Fort William in 
May, 193S (Dr. A. E. Allin and Col. L. S. Dear). 

Woodcock continued to extend their range between 193$ and 
1949 and were reported in various areas from Whitefish Lake 50 miles 
to the southwest to Dublin Creek, 100 miles to the northeast (of 
Port Arthur) . 



- 30 - 

Subsequent to 1949 the species appears to have declined 
in numbers. In 1953 four were recorded by Dr. Allin near Cloud Lake, 
30 miles southwest of Fort William and in 1959 a Mr. Goddard 
reported finding a nest with eggs near Port Arthur. 

S ioux Lookout District (J. A. Macfie) 

Mr. Macfie saw one in a field just outside Sioux Lookout 
in 1951. 

F ort Frances District 

Mr. Lumsden reports that he was not able to find any 
woodcock in this district. 



- 32 - 

SOME OBSERVATIONS OF THE BEHAVIOUR 
<OF A PACK OF WOLVES IN WINTER 

by 
Bruce Turner 



During the past three winters we have been recording 
sightings and the travel routes of wolves occupying an area measuring 
roughly ten miles square immediately south and east of Minisinakwa 
Lake near Gogama. A similar number of wolves seem to travel about 
the same circuit each year, feeding on small animals, an occasional 
big game kill and perhaps a garbage dump. These are the observations 
for the winter of 195$- 59. We succeeded in getting very little 
information due to the fact that the aircraft was usually busy at 
other jobs, and out of the District entirely for ten days of each 
month. Deep, loose snow soon curtailed our efforts to follow wolf 
trails on the ground to observe their habits closely. If a proper 
study of this nature was to be made, it would require the full-time 
services of two or three men with the free use of an aircraft. The 
following are merely notes that would be of interest if such work was 
undertaken here in the future. 

The District aircraft first became available for Fish and 
Wildlife use on January 19th. During moose census work that was 
then undertaken fresh wolf tracks were noted in the study area crossing 
Duckbreast Lake and on January 20 and 21, the east-west trail was 
followed back to where it was lost in fresh snow, and ahead to where 
it reached Minisinakwa Lake a mile from Gogama, a total of about 
twelve miles. One-half to two-thirds of this distance was in timber, 
the rest on lake and stream. 

The fresh trail (it appeared to have been made by about four 
wolves) began three trail miles east of Duckbreast Lake at the remains 
of a moose which had been killed by a hunter a month earlier. In the 
other direction, the wolves had killed and eaten a ruffed grouse four 
trail miles west of Duckbreast Lake and a mile further on visited the 
remains (a few bones and hair) of a second moose. Parts of the spinal 
column were found, and the position of hind leg bones suggested it 
had died in a natural lying position, so this moose could have died 
after escaping with bullet wounds in the hunting season. Two miles 
further west there was evidence of cannibalism among the wolves. The 
man who found the evidence described it thuss 

"At ls30 p.m. I saw blood on the trail in a balsam thicket. 
Thinking it to be a rabbit kill I stooped to look for evidence, and 
to my surprise I found wolf hair, and fragments of bone and bits of 
intestine about wolf-size. I also collected some scats at this place. 
The snow was hard packed over an area of ten feet or more. I then 



- 33 - 

searched around the area, finding a few yards away a bed in the snow 
around which there was blood and wolf hair, and close by more hair 
hanging on a bush five feet above the ground. There was no blood 
showing on the trail before or after the incident, and on the trail 
that left the place I could not definitely establish if the pack had 
decreased in number, as they tended to travel more in single file 
than before. It could not be concluded just what took place here, 
whether the pack got into a fight over a kill, or were so hungry 
that they singled out one of their members for a meal." 

After January 21, snow in the bush was too deep and soft to 
permit further work on the ground. During the rest of the winter, 
we frequently flew over the area looking for tracks when returning 
from other jobs. A group of four wolves was seen from the air on 
three successive days (Jan. 26-2$) between the Mollie River and 
Londonderry Lake, along a trail leading 12 miles south and east from 
the point where we stopped following the wolves on Jan. 21. This 
trail ended at what appeared to be a third moose kill, but we were 
unable to verify it. These at first seemed to be the wolves which 
had eaten one of their group, but on Jan. 26 fresh wolf tracks were 
also seen in the vicinity of the hunter kill, so it appeared that 
there possibly were two groups of wolves in the study area, or else 
one large pack that at times divided into two. On Jan. 30, the tracks 
of the four wolves were followed north from the presumed third kill, 
and lost in drifted snow at Grover Lake, half way back to the hunter 
kill. 

The aircraft was away from the District from Feb. 1 to 11. 
On Feb. 13, a single wolf was seen digging in the snow at the hunter 
kill. Two days previous to this a wolf was trapped and killed at the 
Gogama garbage dump. There had been evidence earlier that wolves 
from the study area were visiting this garbage dump, and the tracks 
of the wolf at the hunter kill led back at least half way to Gogama, 
so it seems probable the trapped wolf was its former companion. The 
single wolf remained alone at the hunter kill for much of the next 
month, being seen there about three more times, the last being on 
March 11, probably reluctant to tackle the deep snow alone, preferring 
to stay near the site of the moose kill, which by then must have been 
completely devoured. 

In March the tracking of wolves from the air became diffi- 
cult, due at first to the abundance of other animal tracks, and later 
the hardness of the snow. We tried during that time to re-locate 
the four wolves seen in late January, to shed light on whether there 
were two groups of wolves in the study area, or if only one wolf of 
an original group of five had survived to mid-March. 



- 34 - 



WOLF POISONING EXPERIMENT , KENORA DISTRICT, 1959 

by 

M. Linklater 



Introduction 

Under a directive provided by the Division of Research, 
Maple, Ontario, an experimental wolf poisoning program was carried 
out during the period from March 3rd to April 2nd, 1959. 

The main objectives of the experiment were to measure the 
effects of poison 1080 on a pack or single coyote or wolves. It 
was not designed as a control measure to kill large numbers of 
animals, but was set up to try to find the most efficient means of 
controlling wolf populations by poisoning that would have a minimum 
effect on other forms of wildlife. 

Under the directive, an area with a heavy wolf population, 
at least five miles from farms or other human habitation, was to be 
chosen for the experiment. 

Prebaiting with venison was to be carried out prior to the 
actual placing of 1080 in the bait. The station was to be visited 
every second day during the prebaiting period to learn what species 
of birds or animals were feeding there. Routes to the site were to 
be posted with warning signs. 

The laboratory at Maple was to supply cubes of venison im- 
pregnated with compound 1080 which were to be frozen to the bait at 
the station in order that birds would have little chance of removing 
the poisoned bait. Only one poisoned bait was to be placed out at 
one time and the station checked each day. The carcasses of all 
animals known or suspected to have been killed by 1080 were to be 
frozen and shipped to Maple at the conclusion of the experiment. 

Location of Bait Station 

The site selected for the bait station is situated 15 miles 
northeast of Kenora on Silver Lake. Portions of the lake fall within 
the Townships of Pettypiece and Jackman. The lake is approximately 
six miles long and two miles wide with one large and five smaller 
islands situated off the north shore. 

This lake was selected for the bait station as it was only 
a short hop from Kenora via aircraft and in the event of poor flying 
weather it could be reached by car with only a two mile walk over the 
ice to the bait station proper. 



- 35 - 

The lake is accessible by car over a private road built by 
and maintained by the Ontario Minnesota Pulp and Paper Company. The 
travel on this road is restricted largely to vehicles of the above 
mentioned Company. The road runs more or less northeast and southwest 
parallel to the south shore of the lake for a distance of about three 
miles. 

Mr. Harold Anderson of Kenora, who operates a tourist estab- 
lishment on the lake during the summer months as well as being the 
holder of a trapline licence for the area, was contacted and questioned 
as to the wildlife status on his ground and particularly the area 
adjacent to Silver Lake. Outside of Mr. Anderson's camp, which is 
situated on the southwest corner of the lake there are no other camps 
in the vicinity. 

On the basis of Mr. Anderson's information we were able to 
establish the fact that moose and deer occur in good numbers as well 
as fur-bearers. The area is known to harbour a fair wolf population 
and with Mr. Anderson's help, we plotted the route of a pack of five 
timber wolves that crossed the lake quite frequently during the 
winter months. 

Prebaiting 

On March 3rd, 1959 > our officers flew in to Silver Lake to 
begin the prebaiting of the bait station. 

A known wolf run was the actual site selected for placing 
the bait which was 500 yards off the southwest tip of the largest 
island on the lake. (See attached map). 

A hole was cut through the ice to bring the water up. The 

front quarter of a moose weighing 64 pounds was used as bait. Heavy 

scrap iron was wired to the bait with about three feet of haywire 
between the bait and the scrap iron. 

The scrap iron was then dropped into the hole past the ice 
thickness. This was done in order to eliminate picking up the bait 
and destroying it at the conclusion of the experiment. The moose meat 
was then frozen securely to the ice with the largest portion protrud- 
ing from the depression in the ice. 

We next placed six foot balsam trees exactly 20 feet on each 
side of the bait as markers and in turn attached poison bait signs on 
each tree. The same type of sign was also placed on trees where our 
snowshoe trail left the road leading to the lake. 

B aiting 

The prepared 10&0 bait arrived in Kenora on March 4. On 
Thursday March 5th we flew into Silver Lake to set the bait. 



- 36 - 

The site had not been visited by either birds or animals 
during the prebaiting period. 

The weather since prebaiting had been below freezing and the 
prebait was securely frozen to the ice. A hole adjacent to the moose 
meat was chopped through the ice for sinking the containers and for 
washing the hands after the 1080 had been handled. Rubber gloves 
which had come with the containers were donned. A hole was chopped 
in the frozen moose meat and the bait, about 10 inches by 4 inches 
was inserted and wired to the prebait and then frozen in with slush. 
The containers and gloves were then dropped through the ice hole and 
the hole slushed in. 

Visits 

The initial plans called for the station to be visited every 
day. This was found to be impossible due to our regular duties and 
other work that cropped up from time to time. 

During the period from March 3rd up to and including April 
3rd, 14 visits were made to the site. Nine trips were made with the 
use of aircraft and five on snowshoes. 

Weather 

The weather ranged from plus 25 degrees F at the start of 
the experiment to around plus 40 degrees F during the last 10 days 
the station was in operation. 

Snow 

The greatest snow depth recorded in the bush in the locality 

of the station was 23 inches, while on the lake it was four inches, 

however with the warm weather prevailing this snow was soon gone 

leaving the ice fairly bare with only the odd patch of snow here and 
there. 

R esults 

No activity was observed on the lake or near the bait until 
March 10th, 1959. On this date the station was visited on snowshoes. 
While en route to the bait over the ice, one deer track and one wolf 
track were noted about a mile from the bait. On arrival at the site 
of the bait three wolf tracks were observed. The wolves had come from 
the direction of the larger island, east of the bait, to within 50 
feet of the station where they stopped and apparently milled around 
before heading in a southerly direction to the mainland. 

The tracks of a fourth wolf were observed. These tracks came 
from the south heading in the general direction of the large island. 



- 37 - 



Three inches of fresh snow had fallen three days previously, 
making signs easy to read. 



The next activity not 
1959, when a fox passed within 
sniffed around a bit and then h 

No more signs were ob 
from March 13th until April 1st 
aircraft. Four ravens and one 
bait station. After landing it 
around that the birds had been 
but no dead animals or birds we 
bait was completely gone and it 
or carried it away as the weath 
making sign reading extremely d 
took off in the aircraft for a 
or birds. The results were neg 
planning to return the next day 
shoreline and adjacent areas. 



ed near the bait was on March lBth, 
15 feet of the station, apparently 
eaded south. 

served during the intervening period 
, when the station was visited via 
gull were observed flying up from the 

was noted from the scats scattered 
feeding quite extensively on the bait 
re found. The portion of the poisoned 

is not known what had taken the bait 
er had turned very mild the last week 
ifficult on the bare ice. We then 
search of the lake for any dead animals 
ative. We then returned to Kenora, 

for a more detailed search of the 



The next day three of our officers flew into the lake to 
continue the search. As mentioned previously the weather had turned 
quite mild during the past ten days which left the shoreline bare of 
any snow, this coupled with the lack of snow on the ice made it 
impossible to find any tracks of animals that may have taken the bait 
and headed into the bush. 

From old signs observed it was noted that a good concentra- 
tion of wolves were frequenting the area. The bones and head of a 
four year old buck deer that had been killed by wolves sometime during 
the early part of the winter were found approximately one-half mile 
from the bait station. 

We were picked up with the aircraft that afternoon and 
returned to Kenora. After conferring with P. A. Thompson, Senior 
Conservation Officer, it was decided to terminate the experiment for 
this year. 

Conclusion 

Although no direct evidence of poisoning was found it is 
felt that we did learn a few things from the experiment. 

We do know that the type of terrain and the availability 
of winter food has a direct bearing on the home range of a pack or 
group of wolves. This is evidenced by the fact that on the basis of 
Mr. Anderson ? s information we were able to plot the route of one pack 
of wolves in the Silver Lake area. 



- 33 - 

The moose meat used in the bait this year may not be too 
attractive to wolves. If permission is granted to continue the 
experiment next winter, the natural winter food of the wolf will be 
used, which in this area is primarily deer. 

We believe that it is most important to set out the bait 
as soon as possible after the freeze up in order to properly assess 
the results. We recommend that in the event permission is granted 
to carry on this coming winter the prepared 1080 be made available 
to us early in the fall. 

It is felt that the officers who participated in the program 
this winter have had sufficient training and instruction in the 
handling and setting of poison that any one of them will be able 
to carry out any future projects of this nature. 









Oi 




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O 
CO" 






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- 40 - 



WOLF PROJECT FOR SIOUX LOOKOUT DISTRICT, 1959 

by 
Jo D. Sayers 



This project was initiated to collect information on a 
method of censusing wolves from an aircraft using artificial scent 
posts. During this censusing program a wolf poisoning project was 
carried out, also any information concerning wolves such as big game 
kills was recorded. 

Wolf Census Pro ject 

Between February 5th and February 11th., thirty-two scent 
posts were set up at approximately ten mile intervals. This circuit 
was laid out in such a manner to give a complete coverage of all the 
forest types, also covering good moose, deer, and some caribou range. 

The posts were set out fifty yards from the lee shore of 
lakes and usually off a point of land or near the mouth of a river. 
A dry piece of tree was used with three to four feet of it projecting 
above the surface and a liberal amount of wolf scent was sprayed 
around the base of the posto 

It was hoped that a check of the post could be made at 
weekly intervals but this did not materialize due to poor weather 
conditions or no aircraft available for the project. Three complete 
circuits were made, with some of the posts closer to Sioux Lookout 
being checked more often. 

Of the thirty-two post sites, twelve showed definite signs 
of having wolves in the general area. During the period of inspec- 
tion success was obtained only once in wolves being attracted to a 
post. At this site which is a fairly small lake, wolf tracks were 
observed when the post was first established on February 11th.. 
On February 25th., wolf tracks were observed on the far shore of the 
lake and one wolf had passed within one hundred feet of the post as 
it crossed the lake. The next inspection of this site was on March 
l$th. when signs showed that two wolves had been milling around the 
post and wolf excreta was found five feet from the post. 

At one of the other post locations a single wolf passed 
within fifty yards of the pole but paid no attention to the scent. 
At two other pose cites a fox was attracted to the post but only 
came within six feet of it. 

It is possible that in the long intervals between some of 
the inspections, tracks could have been missed due to high winds or 
snowfall. The unusual early mild weather terminated the project 
earlier than was expected although on the last inspection of the 
posts very little fresh wolf sign was observed,. 



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- 42 - 

From this sample we were able to determine the health 
condition of thirteen of the nineteen deer killed. Only one of the 
animals, number 19, showed a poor health condition. This kill was 
found quite a distance north of what is considered good deer habitat 
so it is quite possible the animal could have suffered from mal- 
nutrition . As we know that twelve of the nineteen deer killed were 
in good condition we can assume that we have a healthy deer herd in 
the district. 

Wolf Poison i ng Pro.j ect 

Type of B aits 

Five baits were set out, one being seven medium size white- 
fish and the other four were two hindquarters and two front quarters 
of deer meat. The four quarters of deer meat were from two deer 
which had been killed by wolves. 

The first bait set out was a hind quarter of deer meat 
which was loaded with strychnine when the meat was still frozen. 
This was done by puncturing the meat at two to three inch intervals, 
then adding the amount of poison that would stay on a ten cent 
piece into each hole. The holes were then plugged up with pieces 
of meat or fat. The second bait which was also a hind quarter of 
frozen deer meat which was loaded in the same manner, except that the 
meat was allowed to thaw out and give the poison a chance to work 
into the meat. The two front quarters of deer meat were loaded 
when the meat was still soft. Incisions were made in the meat and 
the strychnine powder was sprinkled into the cuts. On the whitefish 
two cuts were made along each side of the back bone, then the poison 
was sprinkled in them. A half an ounce of Strychnine Merck (Strych- 
nine Alkaloid) in powder form was used to load the five baits. 

Observa tion s 

On February 11th., bait #1 was set out on Trout Lake which 
is situated twenty miles northeast of Red Lake. The area of Trout 
Lake is roughly 140 square miles. A pack of wolves estimated at 
seven or eight animals had been travelling on this lake. The hind 
quarter of dser meat was frozen into the ice fifty yards off a 
point of land around which the wolves had been milling and playing. 
Two evergreen trees were placed thirty feet to each side of the bait 
with signs on them concerning the danger of the bait. After having 
set the bait, a fresh moose kill was found on an island 3/4 of a 
mile away c 

On February iBth., bait #1 was checked but there were no 
signs of any animals having visited it. A check was made of the old 
moose kill and tracks indicated that two wolves had been back to it. 
Bait #2 was then set cut 75 yards off the shore of the island near the 
moose kill. This bait was also a hind quarter of deer meat and it 
was set in the same manner as the first bait. 



- 43 - 

On February 25th., when approaching bait #2 a wolf was 
seen lying on the ice two hundred yards from the bait. When the 
aircraft circled the area the wolf got up and ran into the bush. 
After landing and checking bait #2 it was found that the wolf had 
not gone any closer than where it had first been seen lying on the 
ice. Ravens had been pecking at the bait but not enough had been 
eaten to harm them. Bait #1 had fresh tracks of three wolves 
milling around within five feet of it but the bait had not been 
touched. 

On March 12th., eight dead wolves were found at the baits, 
five near bait #2 and three near bait #1. Three dead ravens and 
the remains of a cross fox were near bait #2. One dead raven was 
found near bait #1. Bait #2 had been completely eaten down to the 
ice level whereas bait #1 was only half eaten. Due to the length 
of time expired since the last inspection of the baits, any signs 
of erratic behaviour on the part of the poisoned animals could not 
be observed. From the tracks that were still visible it would 
appear that the fox had been to the bait first then wandered 90 yards 
from the bait before dying. TracM indicated that two of the wolves 
had eaten the fox leaving only the hind legs and the tail. It was 
estimated that the wolves had not been dead for more than two days 
as they were not completely frozen. The sexes of the wolves were 
five males and three females. Three of the males were nearly black 
in colour with the remainder being the common grey colour. The 
attached diagram shows the location of the dead animals in relation 
to the baits. 

On March l#th. bait #3 was set out on an unnamed lake 
35 miles northeast of Red Lake. A pack of three or four wolves had 
been staying in the vicinity of this lake most of the winter. Seven 
medium sized whitefish were frozen into a mound of snow, 50 yards 
from shore. The suggested method of securing the fish to the mound 
is to place the fish in the snow mound with a small part of the back 
exposed, then freeze them in. In this case the fish were shoved 
into the mound head first with about 1/4 of the fish exposed. It was 
felt that due to the mild weather there was less chance of the fish 
becoming free of the ice by using this method. 

An inspection of the dead wolves on Trout Lake resulted in 
no signs of any animals feeding on the carcasses. 

On March 19th., the two front quarters of deer meat were set 
out, one on Ord Lake and the other on Bailey Lake. On Ord Lake, which 
is roughly six square miles in size, the bait was set out 50 yards 
from shore near the remains of an old deer kill. Four wolves were 
seen lying on the ice at Bailey Lake and after landing and inspecting 
the area the remains of an old moose kill was found. The bait was 
set 60 yards from the shore of this lake which is lj square miles 
in area. 



- hrk - 



Locations of Poisoned Animals 




Cat Island 




12 5 yards 






100 yards 60 ^ ards 



Trout Lake 




51° 07 ? 







275 yards 



25' 
Raven 



h 



Scale: 4 in. = 1 mile 



- 45 - 

March 23rd, baits at Ord and Bailey Lakes were checked with 
no signs of animals having been near the baits. 

April 6th., bait #3 was checked to find all the fish had 
been pulled loose from the snow mound and were scattered about. 
One dead raven was found thirty feet from the snow mound. All of 
the fish had been partly eaten and as none of the bones were broken 
it would appear that only ravens had been feeding on them. The bush 
area near the location of the bait was examined for other dead 
ravens but none were found. The remains of the fish were sunk 
through a hole in the ice. 

The wolf carcasses on Trout Lake were checked to find the 
wolf farthest from bait #1 had been half eaten. It had also been 
dragged 100 yards from its original location. The mild spell of 
weather for the past week had obliterated any tracks of animals that 
had been feeding on the wolf. A cross fox was found ten feet from 
bait #1 which had previously been half eaten by the wolves. It 
was thought that the fox could also have been feeding on the wolf 
but after being examined by the District Biologist only deer and 
rabbit meat were found in its stomach. One of the wolves near bait 
§2 gave evidence of ravens starting to feed on the exposed meat 
where the head of the animal had been cut off. In the event that no 
more inspections could be made of the dead animals all the wolves 
were punctured through the body with an ice chisel to assist them 
in sinking. 

Bait #4 at Ord Lake had no signs of any animals visiting 
the bait. 

At bait #5 on Bailey Lake one red fox and a raven was found. 
A fresh track of a wolf indicated it had visited the dead fox and 
the bait but did not touch either of them. 

April 6th was the last check made of the baits. 

Summary 

Scent Post Survey 

1. It is felt that the failure to have better results in attracting 
wolves to the posts could be the fault of the wolf scent. The 
reason for this assumption being twelve of the thirty-two post 
locations showed definite signs of having wolves in the general 
area, yet only one post was visited, being on a small lake 
roughly two square miles in area. 

2. District-wise this project was very beneficial indirectly in 
that it gave us a better picture of the locations and movements 
of the various wolf packs in our area. 



- 1^6 - 

3» Another important factor in conducting this program was it enabled 
us to gather far more information on our winter kill of big game by 
wolves „ 

Poisoning Project 

1 A project of this type should be started in the early part of 
January when the wolves appear to be more active,, 

2 e There would be less chance of missing animal tracks near the 
baits due to mild weather which happened in the case of this 
year's project during the month of March „ 

An attempt should be made to check the baits at least once a 

week. 



- 47 - 



WOLF POISONING PROJECT, PORT ARTHUR DISTRICT, EAST SIDE, 1959 

by 
E. J. Swift 



In February, 1959, the District Forester met with the Fish 
and Wildlife staff at the Port Arthur District Office to outline 
work re Wolf Control, 1959. Conservation Officer W. J. McKeown, was 
selected to carry out the project on the west side of Port Arthur, 
and the author on the east. 

Wolf Lake was the selected site of the east project. 
Located in Glen Township, Wolf Lake is approximately six miles long 
and a mile to a mile and a half in width. It was reported that a 
pack of five or six wolves were running this area and that deer had 
been killed. 

The lake was checked and an old kill, with just blood and 
hair remaining, was found. Two trails were seen on the west shore 
so this area was selected as a good site. 

A ham of venison, secured from a car kill, was used as 
bait. The meat weighed fifteen to twenty pounds. Bait was taken to 
the Nipigon residence and was not allowed to freeze. A stick, 3/4 of 
an inch in diameter, was sharpened as a tool, and 2 5 punctures were 
made about an inch apart to a depth of one to one and a half inches 
in the bait. Strychnine crystals were then inserted in each puncture 
using a table knife, taking only the amount of crystals that would 
stay on the first quarter inch of the blade. The punctures were then 
closed with another stick and the bait placed in the vehicle to freeze 
overnight. 

On February 17, a hole was chopped through the ice and snow 
was placed in the water on Wolf Lake. The bait was pressed into 
this slush so that only an inch to one and one-half inches remained 
above the level of the ice. Slush was then packed around the bait 
so that only the surface showed. Bait was at least fifty yards from 
shore. Two small spruce trees were placed about 30 feet from the 
baits, one on each side. 

The snow depth on the lake was eight inches with small, wind- 
packed drifts, and the temperature was well below zero. Poison bait 
signs were placed on the marker trees. Abitibi employees were informed 
and the gateman was asked if he would inform any curious anglers to 
stay well clear of the site. No trouble was encountered in this 
respect. 

On February 19, the baits were inspected and there was no 
acitivity found. 



- 43 - 

On February 25 the bait was untouched, and completely 
drifted over. Two wolves ran within thirty feet of the bait. 

March 4 the bait was untouched and there were no tracks. 

On March 12, five timber wolves, three male and two female 
were found at the site, three of them with their teeth still on the 
bait. The other two were six feet and ten feet from the bait. The 
head of a fox was also found, the remainder having been eaten by 
ravens. There was no sign of secondary poisoning. The wolf found 
six feet from the bait had a hole in the left side about one inch 
in diameter, and entrails were hanging out. The remainder of the 
bait was covered with snow. 

On March 13? one female wolf was found that had died during 
the night, and was located twelve feet from the bait. Fox tracks 
were skirting the carcasses. 

On March 17, D. D«Agostini, Fish and Wildlife Supervisor, 
marked the wolves. The female wolf was pulled out of the snow by 
two other wolves, and the bait had been circled. 

On March 18, both the bait and the carcasses were untouched. 

March 23, one or two wolves were visiting the site. A small 
portion of hindquarter of female wolf was eaten, but there was no sign 
of secondary poisoning. 

On March 30, the female wolf previously moved was all gone, 
and all trace of this animal lost because of crust conditions. Two 
hams of venison were placed fifty feet from the outer marker. This 
bait was prepared in the same amnner as the previous bait, but was 
not frozen in due to the mild weather. 

On April 1, the new bait was untouched, and there were two 
and one half to three inches of water on the ice. 

April 6, one dead raven was present, and the heads of the 
remaining five wolves were taken to the District Office for shipment 
to Maple. 

On checking the bait a week later, it was not possible to 
get on the ice. Stop logs had been placed on the dam, and water was 
raised. There was approximately 15 feet of open water between the 
shore and the ice. Carcasses left on the ice sank when the lake 
opened. 

Camp 36 Project 

This project was started before the District Office meeting 
in February, and was just an experiment using a dead horse as bait. 
Camp 36 is on the Great Lakes Paper Company Limits, on the northeast 
corner of Black Sturgeon Lake. 



- 49 - 

A slit 12 inches in length was made in the right rear leg 
of the dead horse, a four inch slit on the inner side of the leg, a 
six inch slit on the right front leg, and finally a six inch slit 
on the right side of the neck. All these slits were sprinkled with 
strychnine powder. Several visits were made to this site and it 
was found that the wolves seemed suspicious of the bait and would 
not touch it. One raven was found dead. Fox were followed for 
distances of half a mile and were not found suffering any ill effects 
from eating the bait. The bait was burned on completion of this 
project. Failure in this particular project could be because the 
horse was frozen solid at the time of starting. 

Also, the powder was at least three years old that was used 
on this project. 

Camp 40 Project 

On February 24, three beaver carcasses were placed within 
200 yards of a dead horse, the latter being almost entirely eaten 
by foxes, ravens, and the occasional wolf. The bait was frozen into 
the snow bank along the main haul road of Camp 40, Mclvor Township. 
This was carried out after the camp had closed and there was a gate 
on the road to prevent the public from going into the camp. One 
beaver was slit in eight places, each slit five inches in length and 
one-half inch deep. Strychnine crystals were then sprinkled in each 
slit, and the slits were closed. Two other beaver were frozen into 
the bank six feet from the first. The hind quarters of these were 
only lightly sprinkled. 

On March 10, there was no activity around the baits. 

On March IS, a pack of wolves ran down the middle of the 
road within six feet of the baits. Two of this pack walked around 
the bait and urinated on the top left of the bait. 

On March 23, there was no activity. 

March 26, the beaver was untouched. Front quarters of the 
fresh killed deer were placed on top of the beaver. Skin on this 
deer was pulled back and 15 punctures in the meat were made with a 
stick. Crystals were inserted with a knife same as in the Wolf Lake 
project. The hide was then pulled back in place to protect from the 
weather. 

On April 1, the deer bait was torn apart. One large piece 
was found buried approximately 50 yards from the site. One male 
timber wolf was found approximately 700 feet from the bait site. 
The hind quarters of the beaver pulled from the snowbank was eaten 
lightly. 

A further check of the surrounding area will be made at a 
later date. It is felt that more than one wolf was killed on this 
project, but with snow in the bush it made it difficult to spot dead 
animals. 



- 50 - 

Conclusions 

1. Deer meat is the most preferred bait as far as this project is 
concerned. Beaver is second, with horse meat in the last category. 

2. Bait that can be carried away should not be used. 

3. The site of a previous kill may be an important factor in the 
success of a project. 

4- The project should start immediately after freeze-up. 

5. Powdered strychnine does not seem to be as effective as crystals. 

6. Meat that is not frozen when the poison is added seems to be quite 
effective compared to meat that is frozen when poisoned. Poison 
likely filters through unfrozen meat, but in frozen meat stays in 
one area. The animal can take a bite and walk for a long distance 
if it has a pocket of poison in the piece it is carrying. 



- 51 - 

WOLF POISONING PROJECT, PORT ARTHUR DISTRICT, WEST SIDE, 1959 

by 
W. J. McKeown 



The wolf poisoning project in the Port Arthur District was 
carried out between February 22 and April 30, 1959. During this 
period, baits were set out on three different sites; Lac Des Mille 
Lacs, Carre Lake, and Moe Lake. All baits were set out according to 
instructions received from Maple, with the exception of those baits 
on Moe Lake. Results and observations made on the three sites are 
as follows: 

Lac Des Mille Lacs (Set #1) 

February 22, 1959 - Two baits consisting of 45 pounds of moose meat 

and 3 5 pounds of deer meat were set out approxima- 
tely 50 yards from shore, with two small evergreens 
approximately 25 yards on either side of the baits. 



March 4, 1959 
March 11, 1959 
March 19, 1959 
April 1, 1959 



- First check showed one wolf had passed approximately 
50 yards from the bait. 

- No visible sign of tracks. The baits were still 
untouched. 

- One dead raven was observed approximately 20 feet 
from the bait. There were no other signs. 

- Observations disclosed two wolves, one male and 
one female. These wolves had carried the venison 
400 feet from the original set, where they were 
found approximately 10 feet from this bait. One 
pound of the bait was eaten. 

- Venison bait had been entirely eaten and only a 
few raven feathers remained. The second bait 
consisting of moose meat and dead wolves had not 
been touched. These baits were weighted with 
concrete blocks at this time and were not revisited. 

Carre Lake (Site #2) 

February 24, 1959 - Three baits consisting of 75 pounds of fish, one 

beaver carcass, and one hind quarter of moose 
meat were set out approximately 75 yards from 
shore and a distance of 100 yards between each bait. 
No markers were set out where the beaver carcass 
was set. 



April 4, 1959 



March 4, 1959 



- No visible signs observed. 



- 52 - 

March 19* 1959 - One dead raven approximately 20 feet from the 

beaver carcass was observed. Also, one female 
wolf was found 50 feet from the beaver carcass. 
The other baits were untouched. 

April 4? 1959 - One dead eagle found approximately 10 feet from 

the set of moose meat. No other signs were present. 

April 20, 1959 - All baits with the exception of fish had been 

eaten. No further kills were observed in the 
surrounding area, covering approximately a 2 50 
yard radius. 

Moe Lake (Site #3) 

March 3 ? 1959 - Two hind quarters of venison were dropped from 

aircraft 100 yards from shore and no markers were 
left at this site. 

March 9? 1955 - One dead raven was found approximately five feet 

from the bait. 

March 23, 1959 - One female red fox, 150 feet from bait was found. 

There were no other signs visible. 

April 4> 1959 - All baits including fox had been eaten with no 

further signs of any kills in the area. All baits 
were set in remote areas, and due to poor flying 
conditions, these baits were not visited as often 
as was desirable. The wolf heads collected in 
this project were sent to Maple for aging. 

Conclusions 

1. Poison should be inserted in meat in capsule form or possibly 
liquid poison could be injected in the bait, as it is believed 
that constant freezing and thawing may cause the poison to 
deteriorate. 

2. Baits should be visited at least twice each week, as fresh snow 
covers any tracks that may be left. 

3. If aircraft cannot be made available for the project, baits should 
be set where they can be checked by vehicle. 

4. All baits should be set out as soon as safe ice conditions permit. 

Acknowledgments 

I would like to thank the following people for their assis- 
tance on this project: Pilot Art Burtt, Port Arthur" Pilot Art Colfer, 
Fort Frances^ K. J. Tolmie, D. D*Agostini, P. J. Nunan and J„ Lawrence 
of Port Arthur. 



- 53 - 

OCCURRENCE OP THE BLACK CRAPPIE 

Pomoxis nigromaculatus 

IN THE ONTARIO WATERS OP LAKE SUPERIOR 

By 
R. A. Ryder, 

In the summer of 1957 ^ a commercial fisherman turned, over to 
Mr. Atkinson , Manager of the Dorion Hatchery, a new fish that he 
had never seen before. This fish was an adult specimen of black 
crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus ) from Black Bay, the first record 
of the black crappie from the Ontario waters of Lake Superior. 
This species is common in southwestern and eastern Ontario, in ex- 
treme western Ontario in the Rainy Lake and Lake of the Woods 
watersheds, and is commonly found in all the Great Lakes with the 
exception of Lake Superior. The sudden appearance of this specimen 
approximately in the middle of the north shore while records were 
lacking at either end of the lake, led to speculation as to 
whether these fish were recent immigrants or resulted from an 
introduction. In 19^-9 a token planting of adult crappies was made 
in Addison Lake on Sibley Peninsula. Addison Lake drains into 
Black Bay by means of a small creek. Later checks on the lake did 
not reveal any apparent spawning by these fish. It seems quite 
possible that these fish left Addison Lake and migrated to Black 
Bay where apparently they have successfully spawned, their progeny 
now appearing among the fauna of Black Bay. 

One additional record was noted for Black Bay in 1957 but the 
specimen could not be obtained. In 1958 two specimens were cap- 
tured, one off the Clay Banks of Nipigon Bay by Henry Dampier, a 
commercial fisherman from Nipigon. This fish was taken in a 
pound net on November 10. Another which was an extremely large 
specimen was captured off Spar Island between Nipigon and Black 
Bays on the south side of Black Bay Peninsula. This fish was 
taken by Mr. Toivo Kivisto of Nipigon, while angling with earth- 
worms. A third specimen from Nipigon Bay was rumored, along with 
several from Black Bay, but individuals could not be obtained. 

It appears as if the black crappie is rapidly becoming esta- 
blished on the north shore of Lake Superior. Certainly Black Bay 
maintains at least minimal requirements for spawning and survival 
of the young. Black crappies are native to Torch or Portage Lake 
in the Keewenaw Peninsula of Northern Michigan, This lake is 
connected to Lake Superior at both ends by a canal. It seems 
possible that the icy waters of adjoining Lake Superior formed an 
ecological barrier to this population and prevented their spread. 
Because of this condition which prevails over most of Lake 
Superior, it seems likely that the appearance of the Black Crappie 
in Black Bay resulted from an introduction. However, the recent 
northward movement of this species in both Lake Huron and Lake 
Michigan leaves some doubt as to the validity of this assumption. 



- 54 - 

THE EFFECT OF DISTRIBUTING 
EYED WHITEFISH (Coregonus clupoaformis , MITCHILL) 
AND YELLOW PICKEREL ( Stizostedion vitreun, MITCHILL) EGGS 
ON THE COMMERCIAL FISHERIES OF RAINY LAKE, ONTARIO. 

by 

C. A. ELSEY 



INTRODUCTION ; 

The stocking of yellow pickerel ( Stizostedion vitreum , 
Mit chill) and whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis , Mitchill) eggs 
has been carried on since 1921 in Rainy Lake as a management 
practice. Biologists in various places across the continent have 
questioned this practice and as a result carried out various tests 
on the effectiveness of stocking these two species. 

Hile (1936) was unable to find any correlation between 
numbers of yellow pickerel fry planted and the abundance of fish in 
subsequent years in Lake Huron. Van Oosten (1942) found no causal 
relationship between plantings of whitefish fry and catch in Lake 
Erie. Carlander (1945) on Lake of the Woods, Minnesota could not 
demonstrate a correlation between abundance and number of fry 
planted. Miller (1946) demonstrated that in six Alberta lakes 
plantings of whitefish fry were followed by weaker year classes. 
Lapworth (1956) found that in the Bay of Quint e data on hand in- 
dicate plantings have little value in increasing whitefish produc- 
tion. 

In 1956, the Department of Lands and Forests closed the 
commercial hatchery at Fort Frances. However, in conference with 
the commercial fisherman's association, it was agreed that hatchery 
stocking would be continued until the local situation could be in- 
vestigated and evidence developed showing the value or lack of 
value of stocking. 

The status is that both yellow pickerel and common 
whitefish eggs are collected- on Rainy Lake as in the past. The 
eggs are hatched in the Kenora Hatchery and an alternate stocking 
programme has been established between Rainy Lake and Lake of the 
Woods, eg. in 1959* all available pickerel eggs are planted in 
Lake of the Woods and the whitefish eggs are planted in Rainy Lake. 
In i960, Lake of the Woods will receive the whitefish eggs and 
Rainy Lake will be stocked with pickerel. 

Every year samples of scales are obtained from commercial 
catches to determine what year groups are represented in their nets 
Attempts will be made to correlate commercial catches with years 



- 55 - 



when eyed eggs were stocked. 



This report is an evaluation of stocking whitefish and 
yellow pickerel eggs using past stocking records and commercial 
catches. 



RELATION OF HATCHERY DISTRIBUTIONS TO COMMERCIAL CATCHES : 

Both pickerel and whitefish. in Rainy Lake, start to show 
in the commercial catch when they are four years old and continue 
to be caught in some quantity until they are seven years old. 
Beyond this age they do not appear to be important. 

Years of heavy planting should be followed in due course 
(4-7 years) by good catches and smaller plantings by smaller catches 
if plantings have had an effect on production. 

The standard formula for correlation 

r 2 i (NIXY - IXIY) 2 _ ) was used to try 

(NZ(X2) - (EX)2) (NX(Y 2 ) - (£Y) 2 ) 

to locate any possible relationship between stocking and catch. 
The symbols are as follows r - coefficient of correlation, X = 
number of eyed eggs stocked, and Y = number of pounds of fish 
c.ught. N = the number of years studied. 

Studies currently being made on Rainy Lake indicate the 
possibility that Rainy Lake should be studied as three separate 
lakes (herein designated as the North Arm, the East Arm, and Red 
Gut Bay). Undoubtedly fish move between these parts, but avail- 
able evidence indicates that they can be treated separately. 
This study of movements of fish has just been started and it may 
be that the populations are not distinct. In the event that this 
is true we have also considered the relationship between stocking 
and capturing for the entire lake. 

The correlation between stocking and capturing both 
pickerel and whitefish is shown in Table 1. 

In only one case could a significant correlation be 
found and this showed that the stocking of whitefish eggs in the 
entire lake had a detrimental effect on the catch six years after 
stocking rather than a beneficial effect. At the .05 significance 
level it would be expected that this would occur in 5 cases out 
of one hundred. Therefore, even this one case should not be con- 
sidered. 

These correlation coefficient tests show no detectable 
effect of planting on return to commercial fisherman. 



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- 57 - 

The figures herein presented are subject to some criticism 
and the criticisms should be set forth. 

(a) It would be better if we could present the data in terms of 
catch per unit effort rather than total annual catch. The figures 
for catch per unit effort are not considered dependable in the 
early stages so it has been decided to use total annual catch as 
the basis of comparison. In the east arm six commercial fishermen 
operated and in the north arm there were nine. In either case if 
one lagged for illness or some other reason his efforts were 
likely compensated by the activities of others. In Red Gut Bay 
there was only one fisherman so there was no compensating effect. 

In years when catch per unit effort was low commercial 
fishermen tended to fish less than usual because of the poor 
economic returns. Either method would show a smaller than usual 
return . 

It is not believed that the use of total catch rather 
than catch per unit effort has made any significant difference in 
the values for the correlation coefficient. 

(b) Some commercial fishermen have freely advised us that in the 
past they have supplied incorrect statements of total catch in 
order to gain some supposed benefit. The cases in question vary 
from reports of more than total catch to less than total catch. 

In each case the men have told us that the changes have been small . 

It is believed that the adjustments would balance each 
other and can be omitted from our considerations. 

(c) Hile (1936) stated that production statistics are in no way 
a measure of the abundance of fish. However, our interest is in 
returns to commercial and sport fisherman. The actual abundance 
of fish is not the significant criterion. 

CONCLUSIONS: 



It is not possible to demonstrate that the stocking of 
eyed pickerel and whitefish eggs has had any effect on the pro- 
duction of whitefish and yellow pickerel in Rainy Lake. 

LITERATURE CITED: 



Carlander, V. D. 19^-5 • Age, growth, sexual maturity and popu- 
lation fluctuations of tine yellow pike-perch, Stizoste - 
dion vitreum (Mitchill) with special reference to the 
Commercial Species, Lake of the Woods, Minnesota. Trans 
Am Pish. Soc, 19^3, 73: 90-107 . 

Hile, Ralph '-1936. The Increase in the abundance of the yellow 
p-V^C^-perch, Stizo s^dion vi treum (Mitchill), in Lakes 



- 53 - 

Huron and Michigan, In relation to the Artificial 
Propagation of the Species. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc, 
1936, 66:143-159. 

Lapworth, E. D. 1956. The effect of fry plantings on whitefish 
production in Eastern Lake Ontario. Jour. Fish. Res. 
Bd. of Can., Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 547-55S. 

Miller, R. B. 1946. Effectiveness of a Fish Hatchery. Jour, of 
Wildl. Management, 10 (4)s3l6-322. 

Van Oosten, J. 1942. Relation between the plantings of fry and 
the production of whitefish in Lake Erie. Trans. Am. 
Fish. Soco, 1941, (71):11S-121. 



n cp T LANDS i 



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